# The Whole Truth

The prosecution calls the flight attendant, who first insists that nothing happened on the flight. Under questioning by Janelle, the attendant admits to covering up her extramarital affair with the co-pilot and potentially spending too much time in the cockpit to confidently deny any unusual interactions between father and son. Janelle later becomes suspicious about Mike's story, meets Loretta outside the courtroom, and gradually deduces that Mike is protecting Loretta. She confronts Ramsay, who says that his duty is to save Mike, not to find the truth. She angrily leaves, making Ramsay worry about the jury's reaction to her absence, but she continues with the case.

## The Whole Truth

Back at their real home, Mai tells Putt and Pim about Pinya, and their father who was an artist like Putt. She told Pim that Pinya would sing her to sleep, a tune that Pim still knows. Pim then asks if Mai is sure they know the whole truth. Putt agrees and asks Mai to be honest with them about their father. They mention the hole, which Mai can also see. It showed up after Krit died, and never went away, even when their grandfather tried to cover it. Mai never looked through it. Wan wakes up in the night from the scratching noise. She yells, waking up Phong who still cannot hear it. Phong receives a phone call from his old employee who tells him about Chaiyut, and asks his whereabouts. He then informs Phong that they retrieved evidence proving Chaiyut wasn't driving after all, making his murder meaningless. Downstairs, Wan opens the closet to find Pinya's ghost, who hugs her and vomits blood. Phong comes downstairs to find Wan thrashing on the floor, and sees a bottle of rat poison in her hand. As Wan continues to convulse, Phong sees the burning ghost of Chaiyut. He shoots at the ghost in fear, hitting Wan instead and killing her. He then turns the gun on himself and fires through his mouth, creating the very hole in the wall that he could never see. A flashback shows Mai looking through the hole, watching as Pinya hides in the closet, and Wan from the past, noticing the door is left ajar, closes and bolts it. Another flashback reveals Mai was the one to shoot Krit, furious at him for letting their child die. Phong helps her cover up the murder as a suicide. We see present day Mai putting on lipstick and smiling. In her room, Pim lies on her bed, with the black ghost of Pinya laying next to her, holding her hand.

"The Whole Truth" is the sixteenth episode of Season 2 of Lost and the 41st produced hour of the series as a whole. Locke enlists Ana Lucia's help in dealing with their prisoner in the Hatch. Elsewhere, Sun begins to think that she might be pregnant.

While walking outside with her dog, the fertility specialist drives up to her to confront her with the truth: she is not the reason why she and Jin cannot conceive a child; Jin is. The doctor is frightened of Jin due to his employment with Sun's father. Jin is apparently infertile. She decides to keep it a secret.

At night, as Charlie sleeps, Ana talks to Sayid. She tells him that she knows nobody likes her, and it was this way her whole life, even though she is trying to make them like her, she is who she is. But Sayid, according to her, has a good reason to hate her, and she says she is sorry for what she did. Sayid replies that she was just trying to protect her people, and that it wasn't Ana who killed Shannon but them - the Others. He says once they find out Henry is one of them, something will have to be done.The next day, they arrive at the place the balloon supposed to be, and decide that each one will search in another section of the jungle.

Many people think they are protecting children when they spare them the truth. I disagree. I believe children possess an enviable ability to cope with and make sense of what even adults find confounding; they can accept the unacceptable in a way that astonishes me.

Time marches on, and so do children. These same daughters are in college now; we have two other kids still at home. And while I have made plenty of mistakes as a parent, I do have clear and open relationships with each of our kids. I believe that my being truthful with our children has paid off, because I'm pretty sure that now they are honest with me.

Everybody lies. For Richard Ramsay, a lawyer defending an uncooperative murder suspect in The Whole Truth, this is the only truth. It drives the legal strategy he walks us through, in impassive voiceover narration, in what might have been a tantalizing whodunit about the less-than-gleaming gears of justice but is instead a curiously uninvolving exercise in procedure.

So where does the truth lie? The search for it is one of life's most elusive pursuits. But in his case, Aleo thinks he found it. His client steadfastly maintained his innocence, and the results of his polygraph showed that, according to the examiner, he was 99 percent likely to be telling the truth. When Aleo submitted the test to the national licensure organization, which had revealed little about the evidence it had amassed, its reaction was swift.

"They produced a whole lot of stuff, including investigatory notes, that I had never seen before," he said. "Based on those notes, we were able to identify witnesses who contradicted things [the alleged victim] said. Had we not done the polygraph I don't think we would have gotten that."

"Am I going to tell you that polygraph's all things to all people at all times about all issues?" said Myres, president of the Michigan Association of Polygraph Examiners. "No. It's not a magic eight ball, it's not an Ouija board, it's not black magic voodoo science, it's straight-up forensic psycho-physiological detection of deception, which is a whole lot of long words, but in a nutshell it's personal knowledge."

In 1000 BC, the Chinese ordered accused liars to fill their mouths with a handful of dry rice. If it was still dry when they spit it out, they were guilty of fraud (the logic being that fear and anxiety are accompanied by decreased salivation). During the Middle Ages, the accused placed their hands in a cauldron of boiling water; if their skin was unscathed, they were deemed truthful.

On November 25, 1920, James Frye shot and killed wealthy physician Robert Brown in the doctor's Washington, DC, home where he'd gathered with friends to celebrate Howard University's football victory. Seven months after the murder, when Frye was arrested on an unrelated robbery charge, he confessed to the killing. Shortly thereafter he withdrew his confession on the advice of his attorney, Richard Mattingly, a salesman by day and AU grad student by night. Marston was brought in to administer a polygraph; as he writes in his 1938 book,The Lie Detector Test: "No one could have been more surprised than myself to find that Frye's final story of innocence was entirely truthful!"

Children learn a great deal about the world from their own exploration, but they also rely on what adults tell them. Studies have shown that children can figure out when someone is lying to them, but cognitive scientists from MIT recently tackled a subtler question: Can children tell when adults are telling them the truth, but not the whole truth?

At the risk of boring a few readers3, let me say a few words about each of these uses before proceeding to the main topic of the essay, which is partial truth tables. Eventually, I will show that partial truth tables, no less than full or whole truth tables, may be used to classify and compare propositions and to test arguments for validity (the second, third, and fourth uses).

7) Independence. There is at least one row of the truth tables for X and Y in which X is true and Y false; there is at least one row of the truth tables for X and Y in which Y is true and X false; there is at least one row of the truth tables for X and Y in which both X and Y are true; and there is at least one row of the truth tables for X and Y in which both X and Y are false.

If there is even one row of the truth table in which all the premises are true and the conclusion false, then the argument is invalid. If there is no such row, then the argument is valid. This argument (the Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent) is invalid, as can be seen in the third row.

The wieldiness5 of a truth table is inversely proportional to the number of different simple propositions it contains. Constructing a 32-row, 64-row, 128-row, or 256-row truth table can be done, but it will be time-consuming and tedious.

I now present six examples, two of which require a one-row truth table, two of which require a two-row truth table, and two of which require a three-row truth table. In each pair of examples, one argument is valid and the other invalid. Here, in chart form, are the arguments we will be discussing:

The first step in using the partial-truth-table technique is to write the argument on a single line, with a slash between premises and a double slash between the final premise and the conclusion. The second step is to assign truth values to the premises and conclusion in such a way as to make the premises true and the conclusion false. I will explain the rationale for this assignment shortly. The third step is to determine how many ways there are for each premise to be true and for the conclusion to be false. Recall that there are, in addition to simple propositions, five different truth-functional compound propositions. A given premise or conclusion is either 1) a simple proposition, 2) a negation, 3) a conjunction, 4) a disjunction, 5) a material conditional, or 6) a material biconditional. Here is a chart that shows the number of ways a given type of proposition may be true or false:

The number of rows in a partial truth table equals the smallest of the numbers that you discover during this process. There are exceptions to this rule, as we shall see, but in no event will a partial truth table have more than three rows. This means that a partial truth table will be shorter (i.e., have fewer rows) than any whole truth table except one in which the argument in question contains only one simple proposition.8 041b061a72